ScienceDirect Â® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect Â® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702062858001799, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123042200500133, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455748013002149, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978143772702900129X, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323401814001274, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455707379001223, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012381366400002X, URL:Â https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0076687907370274, Molecular Medical Microbiology (Second Edition), 2015, SCOTT D. GRAY-OWEN, ... THOMAS F. MEYER, in, Jeanne M. Marrazzo, Michael A. Apicella, in, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fifth Edition), Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases of Nonhuman Primates, Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research (Second Edition), Volume 2, Globins and Other Nitric Oxide-Reactive Proteins, Part B, Melanie J. Thomson, ... James W.B. 27.1). Katherine K. Hsu, Jay M. Lieberman, in Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), 2012, Neisseria species are gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacteria. Bacteria – Chlamydia trachomatis (TRIC) is the most important causal agent. are similar in size, appearance and consistency, except for the saccharolytic Neisseria spp. The identifying characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are presented for this rare human pathogen, which heretofore has not been reported as a cause of infection localized to bone. The two pathogenic species of Neisseria, N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, are transmitted person to person. Lip (1-18) and Fbp (iron binding protein) are two other proteins. General Characteristics of Neisseria spp. NAME: Neisseria spp. Laboratory Diagnosis of Neisseria: Specimens: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Most strains are not pigmented although some strains may be pigmented. Though pilin proteins of almost all strains are antigenically different, a single strain can produce several antigenically distinct pilins. Urea-plasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardner Ella vaginalis and Acinetobacter are also included. Nesseria is non-spore-forming, capable of moving using twitching motility, and an obligate aerobe (requires oxygen to grow). In this article we will discuss about Neisseria:- 1. Aerobic Gram-negative cocci often arranged in pairs (diplococci) with adjacent sides flattened (like coffe beans) Oxidase positive Most catalase positive Nonmotile Acid from oxidation of carbohydrates, not from fermentation Important Human Pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis Nitrite is also produced in the nasopharynx by commensal facultative nitrate reducers from ingested nitrates in foodâlevels of 0.01â5Â mM are considered normal in saliva (Lundberg et al., 2004). Most disease-causing strains of N. meningitidis belong to serogroups A, B, or C: serogroup A strains are often responsible for epidemic disease in developing countries, whereas serogroup B and C strains are more often associated with disease outbreaks in developed countries. For penicillin resistant gonococci, spectinomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and ceftriaxone are used. Unlike N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, the other Neisseria species (except N. lactamica) generally do not grow on selective media such as Thayer-Martin agar; LBVT.SNR medium is used to isolate commensal species.4 Commensal and pathogenic species usually can be distinguished by biochemical and serologic tests. The role of capsule in infection needs to be studied further. Jeanne M. Marrazzo, Michael A. Apicella, in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2015. Cultural Characteristics of Neisseria: 6. Indeed, such detoxification systems have been shown to enhance the survival of N. meningitidis within human macrophages and in a nasopharyngeal mucosa organ culture model (Stevanin et al., 2005). Biology, Microbiology, Systematic Bacteriology, Human Parasite, Neisseria. The regulation of norB is less complicated as it appears only to be repressed by NsrR, which is removed rapidly in the presence of NO (Rock et al., 2007). adherent. It constitutes about 50% of all cases of urethritis and is predominant in males; but is symptomless in females. Whether pyruvate does actually play a role in intracellular survival of Neisseria spp. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! The oxygen is mainly used for oxidative metabolism in the energy metabolism. The upper respiratory tract is the most common anatomical site from which Neisseria have been cultured (Barrett and Sneath 1994). are fastidious. Experimental meningococcal infection in stump-tail macaques was characterized by a fall in cardiac output, decreased renal blood flow, and increased systemic resistance (Mellins et al., 1972). is that the AniA protein can be detected by sera from patients suffering from gonococcal infection (Clark et al., 1988) and confers resistance to serum killing by the human complement system (Cardinale and Clark, 2000). The taxonomy of the group is confused. They are aerobe and grow well at optimum temperature of 37Â°C on chocolate agar (Fig. Expression of a gene product that produces NO as a byâproduct (AniA) must be tightly regulated to prevent âsuicide,â whereas the gene product that detoxifies NO to a harmless substance (NorB) is controlled minimally so that it may respond quickly to either endogenous or exogenous (host) NO production. A biotinylated DNA probe can identify it in 10 minutes. Moir, in, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. Forms opaque, dry, wrinkled, adherent, colonies but this may vary with. In female infants and children, they may produce vulvovaginitis, but in newborn infants, ophthalmia neonatorum may ensure. List the biochemical characteristics of Neisseria sicca-glucose, maltose, and sucrose + List the biochemical characteristics of Moraxella catarrhalis-asacchrolytic (no CHO)-DNase +-Butyrate esterase (catarrhalis disk) + List the names of the pathogenic "Group 1" 1. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? cell outer membrane proteins causes. Biochemically, they are oxidase positive, ferment glucose and not maltose. The commensal species can be distinguished from N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae by biochemical and serologic tests. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Morphology and Staining. Each strain of gonococcus possesses only one type of protein I; 18 serovars of Type I A and 28 servoars of type I B have been demonstrated by serotyping of protein I. Commensal Neisseria species. have the ability to reduce nitrite (via nitric oxide) to nitrous oxide. grow best aerobically in an atmosphere containing 5â10% carbon dioxide at a temperature of 89.6â98.6Â°F (32â37Â°C) and a pH of 7â7.5. What are antibiotics? Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? 1. Treatment 10. Colonies are transparent disks of about pinhead, discrete, circular or with crenated margin. Neisseria sicca was identified as the cause of vertebral osteomyelitis in a male patient who had previously suffered a nonpenetrating, traumatic back injury. Evidence to support the role for denitrifying enzymes in pathogenesis of Neisseria sp. The carrier state for N. meningitidis is the human nasopharynx. Bacteremia and death occurred 5â15Â h postinoculation. Non-Specific Urethritis. (N. subflava, N. sicca and N. mucosa) that are larger (1â3â¯mm), more convex and smooth (N. mucosa). Many gonococci carry a plasmid (Pcr) that specifies production of a TEM-1 type of Î²-lactamase (penicillinase). Neisseria spp. 1. -prevent binding of effective antibodies. Answer Now and help others. It is associated with protein I in cell surface in the formation of pores. Carbohydrate utilization reactions, production of polysaccharide from sucrose, and reduction of nitrate are commonly used for identification (Table 127-1).2â5 Difficulties in accurate identification of certain species resulted in some confusion and incorrect identifications in earlier literature.2, Zoon Wangu, Katherine K. Hsu, in Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fifth Edition), 2018, Neisseria species are gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacteria. Cultures are labeled by genus and species name and media on which they are cultured. Antigenic Structure 6. In male, these organisms infect the mucosa of urethra with the help of pili and produce suppurative inflammation with purulent discharge (morning drop of secretion). The cNOR type found in proteobacteria such as Pseudomonas stutzeri (Heiss et al., 1989) and Paracoccus denitrificans (Carr and Ferguson, 1990) consists of a twoâcomponent complex made up of the membraneâanchored câtype cytochrome (NorC), which donates electrons to the transmembrane NorB subunit, which contains two bâtype hemes. Gonococci with plasmid-mediated high-level resistance to tetracycline, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16â¯mg/L or greater, carry the 24.5-mDa conjugative plasmid into which the tetM transposon has been inserted.29 The tetM determinant also confers tetracycline resistance to a variety of other bacteria, including some Streptococcus and Mycoplasma spp. Systemic arterial and central venous pressure remained normal. (other than N. gonorrhoeae and N. Read More evade the immune system. Smears are stained with (a) Methylene blue, and (b) Gram’s stain; the presence of Gram-negative intracellular diplococci is suggestive of gonorrhoea. In fact, it is suspected that gonococci first acquired Pcr plasmids from H. ducreyi.28 Pcr plasmids are commonly mobilized to other gonococci by the conjugative plasmid. In female, from the urethra or the cervix uteri with the wire loop or swabs are transported in Stuart’s transport medium. They are poorly defined proteins. Molecular weight of por protein is 34, 00 to 37,000 Daltons. catarrhalis Thegenus Neisseria contains 12 species and biovars (95) isolated from humans. Pathogenicity and Clinical Features 7. TOS4. Neisseria species are also able to alter their antigens to avoid being engulfed by a process called antigenic variation, which is observed primarily in surface-located molecules. aid in exchange of genetic material from cell to cell (sex pili) antigenic variation of pili functions. Laboratory Diagnosis. Not more than 3 Opa are expressed by one strain of N. gonorrhoeae, though every strain has about 10 genes for the expression. In adult female, the urethra and cervix uteri are infected, not the vaginaâas the vaginal mucosa of married women is stratified and acidic vaginal secretionâhence gonococci cannot get attached to the vaginal mucosa by their pili. Blood agar and chocolate medium (blood heated at 176â194Â°F/80â90Â°C) are suitable growth media. A liquid probe system with chemiluminescent detection system for direct detection of gonococci in the general specimens is equally sensitive as that of ELISA system. Metagenomic studies frequently identify â¦ and various genital organisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. 1 These organisms have been occasionally reported as the cause of significant human infections in normal and immunocompromised patients. Viability 5. Through the pores, some nutrients enter the cell. production of useless antibodies. 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